The Origin of Reptiles

24 “And God said, Let the earth bring forth the living creature after his kind, cattle, and creeping thing, and beast of the earth after his kind: and it was so.

25 And God made the beast of the earth after his kind, and cattle after their kind, and every thing that creepeth upon the earth after his kind: and God saw that it was good.”

Genesis 1:24-25

The "creeping thing" would include amphibians and reptiles, which live on land.  The Hebrew word: "remes" is from the root word: "ramas" which means "to glide, crawl, or move across the land with short steps."  These were created with all of the land animals on the 6th day of creation.

The Bible indicates that God created them each "after his kind."  The word "kind" means "species."  This indicates God created specific "kinds," and He created them each different from the other created "kinds."

Naturalistic Worldview:

Naturalists believe the first vertebrates were fish that they believe appeared in the fossil record about 530 million years ago. They believe fish to evolved into amphibians; and then they believe amphibians evolved into reptiles.

Key Changes Needed:

The development of lungs, scaly skin, and amniotic eggs would be needed to allow amphibians to evolve in reptiles.

Similarities and Differences:

Similarities:

1. Reptiles and amphibians are both vertebrates.

2. Reptiles and amphibians are both cold-blooded.

3. Amphibians hatch from eggs, most reptiles do, but a few give live birth.


Differences:

1. Body Coverings: Amphibians have smooth, moist and sometimes rather sticky skin. Laden with mucous glands. Reptile skin is dry and scaly. Scales are made of keratin. Skin is found underneath the scales.


2. Feeding: Snakes are able to disjoin their upper and lower jaw to accommodate swallowing large prey whole. Amphibians attempt to swallow their food whole but some have exclusive teeth called pedicellate teeth.


3. Neck Vertebra: Reptiles have multiple vertebra in the neck, allowing articulation. Amphibians have a single vertebra in the neck which limits head articulation.


4. Eggs: Reptiles have leathery, soft or hard eggs laid on land or maintained inside the body until hatching. The reptile egg is self-contained and protects the embryo from dehydration. Amphibians have soft eggs normally laid in water or in damp media. The amphibian egg is a yolk sac enveloped in one or more layers of a clear, jelly-like covering. The egg capsule is permeable to water and gases.


5. Respiration: Reptiles breath via lungs. Amphibians breathing via gills, lungs or through the skin which is called cutaneous respiration. Their vascularised skin must be moist for this to work.


6. Metamorphosis (profound change in form): Most amphibians use gills while developing their lungs. Some salamanders such as the mudpuppy retain their gills throughout their lives which is called neoteny. Reptiles have no larval stages.


7. Reproduction: Amphibians utilize external fertilization; while reptiles utilize internal fertilization.


8. At birth: amphibians are born in water or mushy land with gills and tails. Reptiles are born on land and with strong instincts. Physically look similar to adult. Most mother reptiles leave the nest once the eggs are laid. The hatchlings are independent from the start and must find their own food and shelter.


9. Defense: Amphibians have no nails. They give off a toxic skin secretion, and they can bite. If teeth are present, they are pedicellate teeth. Reptiles have nails, teeth, and scales.


10. Limbs: Amphibians have short fore limbs and long hind limbs with five webbed digits. Reptiles usually have four limbs, but some reptiles (snakes) have no limbs. Reptiles with limbs vary in their ability to move; some move very slowly and crawl, while others can run, jump, and even climb.


11. Skulls: Reptile skulls differ from those of amphibians. Reptiles lack an otic notch (an indentation at the rear of the skull) and several small bones at the rear of the skull roof.


12. Eyes: Amphibians such as frogs have bulging eyes that provide them a wide range of view. Reptiles, especially snakes, generally have poor vision.


13. Tongues: Amphibian tongues are broad and specially attached so they can be thrust out and catch insects. Reptile tongues are narrow and forked, to ‘taste’ chemical particles in the air.


14. Skeletons: Both amphibians and reptiles have a backbone. Most frogs have no ribs.

Reptiles are extremely different from amphibians. So much so, that you would just about have to redesign them from the inside out, to turn one into another. Those with a supernatural worldview believe God created them as separate "kinds," and intended for them to remain that way, except for speciation within their created "kind."